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Seawater Desalination Plants

Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Plants (SWRO)

The typical single-pass SWRO system consists of the following components:

Intake

Pretreatment

High pressure pump

RO Membrane Banks

Remineralisation and pH adjustment

Disinfection

Last two components are required if the product water is used for drinking purpose.

Know details

Seawater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.The increasing population as well as unavailability of abundant Fresh Water has forced mankind to make sweet water from salty sea water.

The leading process for desalination in terms of installed capacity and yearly growth is reverse osmosis (RO). The RO membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and applied pressure (on the membrane feed side) to preferentially induce water permeation through the membrane while rejecting salts.


The typical single-pass SWRO system consists of the following components:

Intake

Pretreatment

High pressure pump

RO Membrane Banks

Remineralisation and pH adjustment

Disinfection

Last two components are required if the product water is used for drinking purpose.

 

There are three types of Intakes:

A.) Deep Sea Intake: As the name suggests the sea water is lifted from deep sea near the sea bed so that consistent water quality is fed to membranes. This type is normally used for large plants.

B.) Open Channel: An open Channel is built from Sea to the plant site to deliver sea water. This water is often has lot of silt and colloids, though this is cheapest option.

C.) Wells: Water is extracted from the phreatic water-table level, at the coast. The well intakes have the advantage that the water is of higher quality, and accordingly it is a good option for desalination plants. Through the wells, a pump sucks the water, which is then subjected to different filtering systems so as to separate the sand and other impurities. The disadvantage of this type of seawater intake structure is that the hydraulic capacity will often be reduced by reason of the silting thereof (clogging with fine particles) that impedes the intake of the necessary flow volume.


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